12 Month School Year
The public school year usually runs for ten months (September through June). However, there are children who because of their special education needs require schooling or related services to continue during the summer months (July and August). These children are referred to as having a 12 month school year. The standard used in determining if a child needs a 12 month school year is if the child will have a substantial regression absent being in a 12 month program. The designation of a 12 month school year appears on the first page of a child’s IEP. The majority of pre-schoolers receive 12 month IEPs, but this is increasingly difficult to obtain once a child reaches school age.
Assistive Technology refers to equipment, products and services to improve, maintain or increase the functional capabilities of a student with a disability. For non-verbal children this can mean devices that help them communicate. For children with problems with written expression it can mean a lap top. Before assistive technology is recommended there must be an assistive technology evaluation.
Behavior Intervention Plan (BIP)
A Behavior Intervention Plan is a specific, well defined, written plan of action for managing a student’s behavior. A BIP uses the observations made by a professional who conducts what is referred to as a Functional Behavior Assessment (FBA) of a child.
“Carter” refers to the 1993 U.S. Supreme Court decision, Florence County School District IV v. Shannon Carter, 510 U.S. 7 (1993), 114 S.Ct. 361. This decision expands the earlier 1985 U.S. Supreme Court decision known as “Burlington” and permits reimbursement to parents who place their child at an independent special education school as long if they satisfy what is known as the Burlington/Carter Three Prong test.
Classification is the first step in determining whether a child is eligible to receive special education services. For a pre-school child there is only one classification: “Pre-Schooler with a Disablity.” However, for a school age child there are 13 separate classifications recognized in New York State, these are:
Emotionally Disturbed (E.D.)
Learning Disability (L.D.)
Mental Retardation (M.R.)
Other Health Impairment (O.H.I.)
Speech or Language Impairment
Traumatic Brain Injury (T.B.I.)
(Note: there is no separate classification for ADHD/ADD. If this is a child’s sole diagnosis they can be classified either as: Emotional Disturbance; Learning Disabled or Other Health Impairment. Usually a district will choose Other Health Impairment.
The term “Classified” refers to any student who has met the criteria for classification and has an IEP. The question, “Is your child classified?” is answered in the affirmative your child has an IEP.
Council of Parents Attorneys and Advocates (COPAA)
This nationwide organization is a watchdog and lobbying group protecting the rights and interests of children with disabilities. http://www.copaa.org
Collaborative Team Teaching (CTT)
This refers to a school district.
This refers to an inclusion class where up to 40% of the class is composed of children who are classified and have an IEP. The remaining 60% of the students are general education students. In a CTT class which is always housed in a public school, there are two full time teachers in the classroom – a special education teacher and a general education teacher. In 2009 the term was replaced by Integrated Co-Teaching (ICT), but some districts still use the term CTT.
Early Intervention (EI)
A Federal program available to children from birth to age three, who display a 25% delay in two or more areas of development. This program provides evaluations as well as a host of services, including: ABA, feeding therapy, occupational therapy, physical therapy, play therapy, speech therapy, special education and parent training. It is a free program and available to all children regardless of a parents financial resources. The first step in accessing this program is generally through a child’s pediatrician, however parents can self refer.
Educational Planning Conference (EPC)
This meeting is often used as a precursor to a CSE review, where the findings of testing and evaluations are reviewed with parents by the professionals who conducted them.
Education Records Bureau (ERB)
A private organization which is responsible for administering entrance exams required by most independent non special education private schools.
Extended School Year (ESY)
A provision for special education students to receive instruction during ordinary school “vacation” periods (most often used during the summer).
Free Appropriate Public Education (FAPE)
Learn this critical term! FAPE is the cornerstone of all special education law. A FAPE is the fundamental right and entitlement of every child who has been identified as having an educational handicapping condition. This is a federal guarantee given to children and their parents by both the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (Section 504) and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA).
Functional Behavioral Assessment (FBA)
This is generally done by a licensed psychologist to assess a child whose behaviors interfere with classroom functioning. There are clear regulations about how this should be done, and the fact that it must be done in order to create a B.I.P. (Behavior Intervention Plan)
Final Notice of Recommendation (FNR)
This one page document is sent to a parent after their child’s CSE review meeting. This document will refer the child to a specific class/school.
Full Scale Intelligence Quotient (FSIQ)
This is the weighted average of sub-scores of an I.Q. or intelligence test.
Grade Equivalent (GE)
You will often see these numbers on an educational evaluation or on the I.E.P. It indicates what grade and the month a child is scoring in a specific area. For example a G.E. in calculation of 2.9 means that in the area of mathematical calculation the child is scoring in the 9th month of 2nd grade.
When this term is used by a CSE or school district it generally means Impartial Hearing or Due Process Hearing. This is a legal proceeding occurring when parents disagree with the classification or program recommendation made by a school district.
A special education program that occurs in a child’s home or a therapists office or sensory gym, as opposed to in a school or center based facility. Home based programs are generally used for pre-schoolers. A SEIT falls under this category. There are pre-schoolers who receive both center based programs and have a home based program as well.
A popular philosophical position based upon the belief that we need to return to one educational system for all students and that every student is entitled to an instructional program which meets his or her individual needs and learning characteristics within a general education classroom environment.
Testing done by someone who does not work for the school system.
Individual with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)
This is the federal law (statute) governing special education throughout the USA. It is actually a funding statute which assures that children with educational handicaps receive special education and related services that are appropriate for them. It is the seminal law establishing and protecting special education in our country. The official citation for this statute is 20 U.S.C. 1400-1415.
Individual Education Program (IEP)
This is the federal law (statute) governing special education throughout the USA. It is actually a funding statute which assures that children with educational handicaps receive special education and related services that are appropriate for them. It is the seminal law establishingThis is the document created by the CSE indicating a child’s classification, program recommendation, related services, goals and objectives. An IEP is a legal document that must be created by adhering to legal procedures.and protecting special education in our country. The official citation for this statute is 20 U.S.C. 1400-1415.
Least Restrictive Environment (LRE)
Special education law requires that every classified student be educated in the least restrictive environment where they can have as much exposure as possible to typically developing peers. For example a CTT class is less restrictive than a self contained 12:1 class, and a 12:1 class is less restrictive than a 6:1:1 class. A private special education school is considered one of the most restrictive placements because there is no opportunity for any interaction with typically developing peers, on the assumption that all children in that type of school have a handicapping condition.
A term used where a child with an IEP has an opportunity to be educated with or alongside typically developing non-special education students in a regular classroom, for a portion of each school day. It also refers for opportunities to participate with typical children for non-academic activities, such as lunch, art, music, assembly and trips.
A private school placement made by parents who are not seeking reimbursement. Generally this refers to private mainstream and religious school placements, it should not be confused with a unilateral placement.
The IDEA defines related services as: “transportation and such developmental, corrective, and other supportive services as are required to assist a child with a disability to benefit from special education.
Related Service Authorization (RSA)
This voucher device is unique to NYC and enables a child to receive private, after school related services through a list of approved providers. An RSA is issued by the school district when the public school cannot provide the service to the child in the public school that the child attends, or when the parent parentally places the child in a private school and is not seeking reimbursement.
School Based Support Team (SBST)
A Subcommittee of the CSE found in every public school, whose functions replicate the CSE.
Special Education Itinerant Teacher (SEIT)
A licensed special education teacher who is assigned to a pre-school child as part of their home based program and provides one to one specialized instruction.
Special Education Teacher Support Services (SETSS)
One type of special education service, it used to be called resource room. Generally there is one special education teacher working with up to 8 classified children for anywhere from 3 to 5 periods per week.
A placement made by a parent without the recommendation, approval or consent of the C.S.E. or school district. This term is usually used when referring to placement in a private special education school, but can also be used for a private therapist or other services, that a parent on his or her own initiates and funds.
Questions or concerns? Contact us.